HerbSwanson.com ...A Resource for the Study of the Thai Church

MA Thesis Bibliography

This Heathen People: The Cognitive Sources of American Missionary

Westernizing Activities in Northern Siam, 1867-1889

Herbert R. Swanson

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland
in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts



Abstract 2006 Intro 1987 Intro Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Conclusion Bibliography



Minutes of the North Laos Presbytery 1887-1888. Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia.

Minutes of the Session, First Presbyterian Church of Carthage 1850-1906. At the First Presbyterian Church, Carthage, NC.

Records of the American Presbyterian Mission. Payap University Archives, Chiang Mai.

Records of the American Sunday School Union. Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia.

Records of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church U.S.A. Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia.


"Annual Report of the Principal of the Western Female Seminary." 1871. (Oxford, OH: W.A. Powell, 1871).

Backus, Mary. ed., Siam and Laos as Seen by Our American Missionaries. Philadlphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1884.

Bock, Carl. Temples and Elephants: Travels in Siam 1881-1882. 1884. Reprint. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Curtis, Lillian Johnson. The Laos of North Siam. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1903.

Dodd, William Clifton. The Tai Race. Cedar Rapids, IA: Torch Press, 1923.

Freeman, John H. An Oriental Land of the Free. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1910

Hallet Holt S. A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Shan States. London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1890.

McGilvary, Daniel. A Half Century among the Siamese and the Lao. New York: Revell, 1912.

Martin, Chalmers. Apostolic and Modern Missions. New York: Revell, 1898.

Memorial: Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Western Female Seminary. Indianapolis: Carlon & Hollenbeck, 1881.

Necrological Report [Princeton Seminary Bulletin]. (1912).

Peabody, Helen. Mary Margaretta Campbell: A Brief Record of a Youthful Life. Cincinnati: Silvius and Smith, 1881.

Redden, Alma Cheek. A Chronicle of Two Pioneer Families: The Bentons and the Taylors of the North Carolina Back Country. Greensboro, NC: Acme Printing and Typesetting Co., 1969.

Roberts, John K. History of Union Presbyterian Church. Carthage, NC: Kelly Printing Co., 1910.


Northern Thai and Thai Church History

Aroonrut Wichienkeeo. "Chiangmai Society in the Early Bangkok Period: An Analysis Based on Northern Thailand Palm Leaf Manuscripts." M.A. thesis, Chulalongkorn University, 1977.

Brailey, Nigel. "The Origins of the Siamese Forward Movement in Western Laos 1850-92." Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1968.

Coedes, G. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Edited by Walter F. Vella. Translated by Susan Brown. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1968.

Hughes, Philip. "Christianity and Buddhism in Thailand." Journal of the Siam Society 73(January-July 1985), 23-41.

____________. "Christianity and Culture: A Case Study in Northern Thailand." Th.D. diss., South East Asia Graduate School of Theology, 1982.

____________. Proclamation and Response: A Study of the History of the Christian Faith in Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai: The Manuscript Division, Payap College, 1982.

____________. "Theology and Culture: Implications for Methodology of a Case Study in Northern Thailand." Colloquium: The Australian and New Zealand Theological Review 18(October 1985): 43-53.

Lord, Donald. Mo Bradley and Thailand. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1969.

McFarland, George Bradley. ed., Historical Sketch of Protestant Missions in Siam, 1828-1928. Bangkok: Bangkok Times Press, 1928.

Maen Pongudom. "Apologetic and Missionary Proclamation Exemplified by American Presbyterian Missionaries to Thailand (1828-1978), Early Church Apologists: Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria and Origen, and the Venerable Buddhadasa Bhikku, A Thai Buddhist Monk-Apologist." Ph.D. diss., University of Otago, 1979.

Penth, Hans. "kwambenmakonglannathai" (The Lan Na Thai Past). In lannathai (Lan Na Thai), 1-31. Chiang Mai: The Province of Chiang Mai, 1983.

Prasit Pongudom. praadsat saphakrischak nai prthatthai (The History of the Church of Christ in Thailand). Chiang Mai: Archives Unit, Church of Christ in Thailand, 1985.

Ramsey, Ansil. "Modernization and Reactionary Rebellions in Northern Siam." Journal of Asian Studies 38(February 1979): 283-97.

Rujaya Abhakorn. "Changes in the Administrative System of the Northern Thai States, 1884-1908." Paper presented to the International Seminar on Change in Northern Thailand and the Shan States 1886-1940." Payap College, 20-25 June 1983.

Saduphon Chungachit. (In Thai) "Phra Sirimungkhlchan: The Great Lan Na Thai Scholar." In Lan Na Thai Studies. Edited by. Prakhong Nimmanhaemin and Songsuk Prangwuthanakun, 137-56, Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai Book Center, 1978.

Singka Wanasai. baebrian asksan lannathai (Textbook for the Lan Na Thai Script). Chiang Mai: Thai Department, Chiang Mai University, n.d.

Smith, Alex G. Siamese Gold: A History of Church Growth in Thailand. Bangkok: Kanok Bannasan, 1982.

Swanson, Herbert R. "Advocate and Partner: Missionaries and Modernization in Nan Province, Siam, 1895-1934." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13(September 1982): 296-309.

__________. Khrischak Muang Nua: A Study in Northern Thai Church History. Bangkok: Chuan Press, 1984.]

__________. "A New Generation: Missionary Impact on Women's Education in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thai Society." Paper presented to HIST 809, "Women's History," University of Maryland, Fall, 1985.

__________. "This Seed: Missionary Printing and Literature as Agents of Change in Northern Siam, 1892-1926." Paper presented to the International Seminar on Change in Northern Thailand and the Shan States 1886-1940, Payap College, 20-25 June 1983.

Wakeman, Esther P. "Sri Ngam Church: An Historical Inquiry into the Origins of the Church in Northern Thailand." Paper presented to the McGilvary Faculty of Theology, Payap University, July 1984.

Wells, Kenneth E. History of Protestant Work in Thailand 1828-1958. Bangkok: The Church of Christ in Thailand, 1958.

Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.

American and American Church History

Adams, David Wallace. "Education in Hues: Red and Black at Hampton Institute, 1878-1893." South Atlantic Quarterly 66 (Spring 1977): 159-76.

Adams, James Luther. "The Voluntary Principle in the Forming of American Religion." In The Religion of the Republic, edited by. Elwyn A. Smith, 217-46. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

Agnew, Edith J. and Ruth K. Barber. "The Unique Presbyterian School System of New Mexico," Journal of Presbyterian History 49 (Fall 1971): 197-221.

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

_____________________. "The Scottish Philosophy and American Theology." Church History 24 (1955): 257-72.

Banner, Lois. "Presbyterians and Voluntarism in the Early Republic." Journal of Presbyterian History 50 (Fall 1972): 187-205.

_____________. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control: A Critique of an Interpretation." Journal of American History 60 (June 1973): 23-41.

Barnhart, Marjorie. "From Elisha Swift to Walter Lowrie: The Background of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions." Journal of Presbyterian History 65 (Summer 1987): 85-96.

Beaver, R. Pierce. "Methods in American Missions to the Indians in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Calvinist Models for Protestant Foreign Missions." Journal of Presbyterian History 47 (June 1969): 124-48.

___________________. "Missionary Motivation through Three Centuries." In Reinterpretation in American Church History, edited by Jerald C. Brauer, 113-51. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Bell, Marion L. Crusade in the City: Revivalism in Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1977.

Benkart, Paula K. "Changing Attitudes of Presbyterians Towards Southern and Eastern European Immigrants, 1880-1914." Journal of Presbyterian History 49 (Fall 1971): 222-45.

Berger, William H. "James Shepard Dennis: Syrian Missionary and Apologist." Journal of Presbyterian History 64 (Summer 1986): 97-111.

Berkhofer, Robert F. Salvation and the Savage: An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response. New York: Atheneum, 1976.

Binder, Frederick. The Age of the Common School, 1830-1865. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1974.

Borman, Ernest G. The Force of Fantasy: Restoring the American Dream. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985.

Bowden, Henry Warner. American Indians and Christian Missions: Studies in Cultural Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Boyer, Paul. Urban Masses and Moral Order in America, 1820-1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Bozeman, Theodore Dwight. Protestants in an Age of Science: The Baconian Ideal and Antebellum American Religious Thought. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.

_______________________________. "Science, Nature and Society: A New Approach to James Henly Thornwell." Journal of Presbyterian History 50 (Winter 1972): 307-325.

Bradbury, M.L. "Samuel Stanhope Smith: Princeton's Accommodation to Reason." Journal of Presbyterian History 48 (Fall 1970): 189-202.

Branson, Roy. "James Madison and the Scottish Enlightenment." Journal of the History of Ideas 40 (April-June 1979): 235-250

Brauer, Jerald C. "The Rule of Saints in American Politics." Church History 27 (September 1958): 240-55.

Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. Mission for Life: The Judson Family and American Evangelical Culture. New York: New York University, 1984.

Canny, Nicholas P. "The Ideology of English Colonization: From Ireland to America." William and Mary Quarterly 30 (October 1973): 575-98.

Clebsch, William A. From Sacred to Profane America: The Role of Religion in American History. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Cole, Charles C., Jr. The Social Ideas of the Northern Evangelists 1826-1860. 1954. Reprint. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.

Coleman,Michael. "Christianization and Americanizing the Nez Perce: Sue L. McBeth and her Attitudes to the Indians." Journal of Presbyterian History 53 (Winter 1975): 339-62.

___________________. "Not Race, but Grace: Presbyterian Missionaries and American Indians, 1837-1893." Journal of American History 67 (June 1980): 41-60.

___________________. "Presbyterian Missionaries and Their Attitudes to the American Indians, 1837-1893." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1977.

Conforti, Joseph. "Jonathan Edwards's Most Popular Work: 'The Life of David Brainerd' and Nineteenth-Century Evangelical Culture." Church History 54 (June 1985): 188-203. [4:6]

Coon, Charles L. North Carolina Schools and Academies 1790-1840. Raleigh: Edwards and Braughton, 1915.

Cowing, Cedric B. The Great Awakening and the American Revolution: Colonial Thought in the 18th Century. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1971.

Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The National Experience 1783-1876. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

Dodd, Jill Siegel. "The Working Classes and the Temperance Movement in Ante-bellum Boston." Labor History 19 (Fall 1978): 510-31.

Dolan, Jay. The Immigrant Church: New York's Irish and German Catholics, 1815-1865. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1975.

Doyle. Don H. "The Social Functions of Voluntary Associations in a Nineteenth-Century American Town." Social Science History 1 (Spring 1977): 333-55.

Eid, Leroy V. "The Indian Contribution to the American Revolution." Midwest Quarterly 22 (Spring 1981): 279-98.

Elsbree, Oliver Wendell. The Rise of the Missionary Spirit in America. 1928. Reprint. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1980.

Faler, Paul. "Cultural Aspects of the Industrial Revolution: Lynn, Massachusetts, Shoemakers and Industrial Morality, 1826-1860." Labor History 15 (Summer 1974): 367-94.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. "Evangelicalism and the Meaning of The Proslavery Argument: The Reverend Thornton Stringfellow of Virginia." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 85 (January 1977): 3-17.

Findlay, James. "The SPCTEW and Western Colleges: Religion and Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century America." History of Education Quarterly 17 (Spring 1977): 31-62.

Flower, Olive. The History of Oxford College for Women 1830-1928. Oxford, OH: Miami University Alumni Association, 1949.

Foster, Charles I. An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front 1790-1837. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1960.

Gaustad, Edwin Scott. The Great Awakening in New England. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1965.

Geiger, C. Harvey The Program of Higher Education of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America: An Historical Analysis of Its Growth in the United States. Cedar Rapids,IA: Laurance Press, 1940.

Gilkeson, John Shanklin. "A City of Joiners: Voluntary Associations and the Formation of the Middle Class in Providence, 1830-1920." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 1981.

Goodykoontz, Colin Brummitt. Home Missions on the American Frontier. 1939. Reprint. New York: Octagon Books, 1971.

Gordon, Mary McDougall. "Patriots and Christians: A Reassessment of Nineteenth-Century School Reformers." Journal of Social History 11 (Summer 1978): 554-73.

Graff, Harvey J. The Literacy Myth: Literacy and Social Structure in the Nineteenth-Century City. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Greven, Philip. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, and the Self in Early America. New York: Knopf, 1977.

Gribbin, William. The Churches Militant: The War of 1812 and American Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815-1860." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 44 (December 1957): 423-444.

Grob, Gerald N. "Mental Illness, Indigency, and Welfare: the Mental Hospital in Nineteenth-Century America." In Anonymous Americans: Explorations in Nineteenth-Century Social History, edited by Tamara K. Hareven, 250-79. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Gusfield, Joseph R. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966.

Gutman, Herbert G. "Protestantism and the American Labor Movement: The Christian Spirit in the Gilded Age." In Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America: Essays in American Working-class and Social History, 79-117. New York: Vintage Books, 1977.]

Handy, Robert T. A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

_________________. A History of the Churches In the United States and Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Hansen, Klaus J. "The Millennium, the West, and Race in the Antebellum American Mind." Western Historical Quarterly 3 (October 1972): 373-90.

Harris, Barbara J. Beyond Her Sphere: Women and the Professions in American History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.

Hartman, Grover L. "The Hoosier Sunday School: A Potent Religious/Cultural Force." Indiana Magazine of History 78 (September 1982): 215-44.

Hatch, Nathan O. The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

Hinckley, Ted C. "The Presbyterian Leadership in Pioneer Alaska." Journal of American History 52 (March 1966): 742-56.

________________."Sheldon Jackson: Gilded Age Apostle." Journal of the West 23 (January 1984): 16-25.

Hoffecker, Andrew W. Piety and the Princeton Theologians: Archibald Alexander, Charles Hodge, and Benjamin Warfield. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1981.

Hood, Fred J. "Evolution of the Denomination Among the Reformed of the Middle and Southern States, 1780-1840." In Denominationalism, edited by Russell E. Richey, 139-60. Nashville: Abingdon, 1977.

_____________. "Presbyterianism and the New American Nation, 1783-1826: A Case Study of Religion and National Life." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1968.

_____________. Reformed America: The Middle and Southern States, 1783-1837. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1980.

Hoveler, David J., Jr. James McCosh and the Scottish Intellectual Tradition From Glasgow to Princeton. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Hudnut, William H. "Samuel Stanhope Smith: Enlightened Conservative. Journal of the History of Ideas 17 (October 1956): 540-52.

Hudson, Winthrop S. American Protestantism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

______________________. Religion in America. 2nd ed. New York: Scribner's, 1972.

Hughes, Richard B. "Old School Presbyterians: Eastern Invaders of Texas, 1830-1865." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 74 (January 1971): 324-36.

Jacobs, Sylvia M., ed. Black Americans and the Missionary Movement in Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. New York: Norton, 1975.

Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Jewett, Robert. The Captain America Complex: The Dilemma of Zealous Nationalism. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1973.

Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York 1815-1837. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.

Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. New York: Norton, 1968.

Katzman, David M. Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Kuykendall, John W. Southern Enterprize: The Work of National Evangelical Societies in the Antebellum South. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982.

Lesick, Lawrence Thomas. The Lane Rebels: Evangelicalism and Antislavery in Antebellum America. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1980.

Lewis, W. David. "The Reformer as Conservative: Protestant Sounter-subversion in the Early Republic." In The Development of an American Culture, edited by Stanley Coben and Lorman Ratner, 80-111. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983.

Leyburn, James G. The Scotch-Irish: A Social History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1962.

Lichtheim, George. "The Concept of Ideology." History and Theory 4 (1965): 164-95.

Loetscher, Lefferts A. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978.

_______________________. The Broadening Church: A Study of Theological Issues in the Presbyterian Church Since 1869. Philadlephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1954.

________________. Facing the Enlightenment: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983.

Lynn, Robert W. and Elliot Wright, The Big Little School: Sunday Child of American Protestantism. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

McBeth, Sally J. "Indian Boarding Schools and Ethnic Identity: An Example from the Southern Plains Tribes of Oklahoma." Plains Anthropologist 28 (May 1983): 119-28.

MacCormac, Earl R. "Mission and the Presbyterian Schism of 1837." Church History 32 (March 1963): 32-45.

_____________________. "The Transition from Voluntary Missionary Society to the Church as a Missionary Organization among the American Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and Methodists." Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1961.

McGovern, Constance M. "The Myths of Social Control and Custodial Oppression: Patterns of Psychiatric Medicine in Late Nineteenth-Century Institutions." Journal of Social History 20 (Fall 1986): 3-24.

Maclear, James.Fulton. "The Republic and the Millennium." In The Religion of the Republic, edited by Elwyn A. Smith, 183-216. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

McLoughlin, William G., Jr. "Introduction: The American Evangelicals: 1800-1900." In The American Evangelicals, 1800-1900: An Anthology. Edited by William G. McLoughlin, Jr., 1-27. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

____________________________. Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham. New York: Ronald Press, 1959.

____________________________. "Pietism and the American Character." American Quarterly 17 (Summer 1965): 163-86.

Mann, Ralph. "The Americanization of Arcadia." American Studies 19 (Spring 1973): 5-20.

Mardock, Robert Winston. The Reformers and the American Indians. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971

Marsden, George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970.

_____________________. "Kingdom and Nation: New School Presbyterian Millennialism in the Civil War Era." Journal of Presbyterian History 46 (December 1968): 254-273.

Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process, 1780-1830: An Hypothesis." American Quarterly 21 (Spring 1969): 23-43.

Marty, Martin. Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America. New York: Dial, 1970.

May,Henry F. The Enlightenment in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process, 1780-1830: An Hypothesis." American Quarterly 21 (Spring 1969): 23-43.

Merk, Frederick. Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.

Meyer, D.H. The Instructed Conscience: The Shaping of the American National Ethic. Philadlephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972.

Miller, Glenn T. 'Fashionable to Prophesy': Presbyterians, the Millennium and the Revolution." Amerikastudien/American Studies 21 (1976): 239-60.

______________. "God's Light and Man's Enlightenment: Evangelical Theology of Colonial Presbyterianism," Journal of Presbyterian History 51 (Summer 1973): 97-115

______________. "Images of the Future in Eighteenth Century American Theology." Americastudien/American Studies 20 (1975): 87-100.

Miller, Howard. The Revolutionary College: American Presbyterian Higher Education 1707-1837. New York: New York University Press, 1976.

Miller, Lillian B. "Paintings, Sculpture, and the National Character, 1815-1860."..Journal of American History 53 (March 1967): 696-707.

Miller, Perry. The Life of the Mind in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965.

Mirande, Alfredo. The Chicano Experience: An Alternative Perspective. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985.

Miyakawa, T. Scott. Protestants and Pioneers: Individualism and Conformity on the American Frontier. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Mohl, Raymond A. "The Urban Missionary Movement in New York City, 1800-1825." Journal of Religious History 7 (December 1972): 110-128.

Montgomery, David. "The Shuttle and the Cross: Weavers and Artisans in the Kensington Riots of 1844." Journal of Social History 5 (1972): 411-46.

Moorhead, James H. American Apocalypse: Yankee Protestants and the Civil War 1860-1869. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.

_____________________. "The Erosion of Posmillennialism in American Religious Thought, 1865-1925." Church History 53 (March 1984): 61-77.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975.

Murray, Andrew E. Presbyterians and the Negro - A History. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1966.

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_________. "Introduction." In The Princeton Theology 1812-1921: Scripture, Science, and Theological Method from Archibald Alexander to Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield. Edited by Mark A. Noll, . Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1983.

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Pearce, Roy Harvey. Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind. rev. ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1965.

Pointer, Richard W. "Seedbed of American Pluralism: The Impact of Religious Diversity in New York, 1750-1800." Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1981.

Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. abridged ed. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

Ratner, Lorman. "Conversion of the Jews and Pre-Civil War Reform." American Quarterly 13 (Spring 1961): 43-54.

Reifsnyder, Richard W. "Presbyterian Reunion, Reorganization and Expansion in the Late 19th Century." Journal of Presbyterian History 64 (Spring 1986): 27-38.

Richardson, Joe M. Christian Reconstruction: The American Missionary and Southern Blacks, 1861-1890. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1986.

Rothman, Sheila M. Woman's Proper Place: A History of Changing Ideals and Practices, 1870 to Present. New York: Basic Books, 1965.

Rosenberg, Carol Smith. Religion and the Rise of the American City: The New York City Mission Movement, 1812-1870. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971.

Rudolph, L.C. Hoosier Zion: The Presbyterians in Early Indiana. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.

Ryan, Mary P. Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790-1865. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

______________. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1975.

Sandeen, Ernest R. "The Princeton Theology: One Source of Biblical Literalism in American Protestantism." Church History 31 (September 1962): 307-21.

____________________. The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism 1800-1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

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Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Catharine Beecher. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.

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Smith, Elwyn A. "The Forming of a Modern American Denomination." Church History 31 (March 1962): 74-99.

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Smith, Gary Scott. The Seeds of Secularization: Calvinism, Culture, and Pluralism in America, 1870-1915. St. Paul: Christian University Press, 1985.

Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Abingdon, 1957.

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____________________. "The View of Man Inherent in New Measures Revivalism." Church History 45 (June 1976): 206-221.

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Thompson, Ernest Trice. Presbyterians in the South. Vol. 2, Richmond: John Knox Press, 1973.

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